By Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Animal Waste con
''Animal Waste Containment in Lagoons'' presents a complete view of the cutting-edge perform of animal waste containment and offers instructions for destiny learn strategies. Practitioners within the following disciplines: water assets, environmental, geotechnical, and agricultural engineering will locate this handbook to be very priceless. issues coated contain: destiny of nitrogen compounds in animal waste lagoons; Seepage and delivery via anaerobic lagoon liners; Clogging of animal waste lagoon liners; comparing seepage losses and liner functionality at animal waste lagoons utilizing water stability equipment; Use of coal combustion by-products as low permeability liners for manure garage amenities; and Air caliber concerns linked to cattle construction
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Permeability variations for samples subjected to livestock waste and swine waste from southwest Kansas are shown in Figures 3-5 and 3-6, respectively. The permeabilities started declining after being steady during the first 2 months. 2, which maintained low permeabilities throughout. Microbial counts for the effluent samples during the testing period are shown in Figure 3-7. In spite of the sharp SEEPAGE AND TRANSPORT 37 FIGURE 3-5. Permeability versus Time for Soil Type 3 Subjected to Cattle Waste from Southwest Kansas.
This tendency of NH4+ attenuates its offsite migration via surface runoff or leaching into groundwater. NH4+ can readily replace other monovalent cations in exchange reactions on mineral surfaces. The fraction of NH4+ adsorbed on mineral surfaces that can be exchanged back into solution by other cations is defined as the exchangeable NH4+. Conversely, NH4+ that becomes fixed within the clay mineral lattice and is not readily exchanged FATE OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS 23 by other cations is defined as the nonexchangeable NH4+.
Prior to application of gradients, the soil samples in the permeameters (each 5 cm thick) were allowed to saturate under standing liquids. 1 m (20 ft)]. Because the seepage characteristics of compacted clays are known to exhibit variability, reproducibility experiments were conducted on duplicate soil samples. Also, a few experiments were duplicated by different personnel to account for possible human errors, as per the suggestions of the regulatory agency. Permeability experiments also were conducted at several points on the compaction curve, including optimum water content, wet of optimum, and dry of optimum.
Animal waste containment in lagoons by Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Animal Waste con