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Since other forms of energy cannot be used, if the available energy is converted to any other form, the energy is considered as lost. For example, in a flowing mass of water, part of the available energy may be converted into thermal energy due to internal friction. Such a conversion is considered a loss of energy. The available energy of a fluid is proportional to its mass, and therefore it is common to express energy, per unit mass or per unit weight. As energy is the capacity to do work and as work is force multiplied by distance, the dimensions of energy are FL or ML2T~2 and the units are N • m or Joule, J (1 J = 1 N • m).

The sum Z + {ply) + {V2/2g) is the total head. Between sections 1-1 and 2-2 of a pipeline, a pump may be fitted to supply energy or a turbine may be fitted to extract energy. 17) The energy supplied by a pump or given to a turbine can be evaluated by considering the power and the efficiency. Power is the capacity to do work per unit time and therefore has the dimensions of FLT"1 or ML 2 T~\ The unit for power is the watt, W (1 W = 1 J/s). 8 A pipe carrying water tapers from 200 mm diameter at section 1 to 100 mm diameter at section 2.

Collins [42] has confirmed them as excellent approximation of the Colebrook-White equation. 20)] are almost the same. 18)] in 1973 [34], the credit of proposing this type of explicit relationship first goes to Churchill. 19) for direct use in practice. 20) is also now included in a textbook of fluid mechanics [9]. 23) which is rather complicated but extremely accurate for 4,000 < Re < 108, andO < (e/D) < 5 X 10"2, and thus gives an excellent explicit form of the Colebrook-White equation. 33 percent for 4,000 < Re < 108, and 0 < (e/D) < 5 X 10"2.

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Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks by Pramod R. Bhave

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