By Charles Lumpkins
Charles Lumpkins indicates that black citizens of East St. Louis had engaged in formal politics because the 1870s, exerting effect throughout the poll and during patronage in a urban ruled by means of robust actual property pursuits while many African americans in other places skilled setbacks in exercise their political and financial rights.
While Lumpkins asserts that the race riots have been a pogrom—an prepared bloodbath of a specific ethnic group—orchestrated through definite businessmen motive on fighting black citizens from reaching political energy and on turning town right into a “sundown” city completely cleared of African americans, he additionally demonstrates how the African American neighborhood survived. He situates the actions of the black electorate of East St. Louis within the context of the bigger tale of the African American quest for freedom, citizenship, and equality.
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Additional info for American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics
The CTLU affiliated itself with the American Federation of Labor (AFL), an association founded in . It followed the AFL’s program of business unionism, which involved winning union recognition, higher wages, a shorter workday and work week, and better working conditions, ideally through arbitration rather than through strikes. 1-108 6/13/08 4:35 PM Page 34 over their work processes. In emphasizing business unionism and organizing craft workers, CTLU leaders, like their counterparts in the AFL, showed little interest in unionizing unskilled workers, whether black or white, male or female.
Hungarian-born residents did not rank among the five largest white nativity groups in Chicago. when native-born and old-immigrant workers had already established their presence in the upper echelons of the industrial workforce. By , new immigrants made up a significant percentage of the unskilled industrial workforce. They were relegated to lower job categories largely because they were considered racially different from native-born white Americans, who generally regarded the newcomers as “not white” or at least as not acculturated to being white in the United States.
Opponents’ fears of a city deeply in debt did materialize, but not until the first decade of the twentieth century. Meanwhile, local businessmen oversaw the rapid industrialization of East St. 24 Rather than dominating St. Louis economically, East St. Louis under city leaders’ economic planning became an industrial satellite of St. Louis and acquired a host of problems that other industrial suburbs of large cities also experienced. East St. 1-108 6/13/08 4:35 PM Page 25 tropolis by a state boundary, suffered from differences in state laws and municipal ordinances regulating industrial production.
American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics by Charles Lumpkins