By Ousmane Power-Greene
Against Wind and Tide tells the tale of African American's conflict opposed to the yankee Colonization Society (ACS), based in 1816 in an effort to go back unfastened blacks to its colony Liberia. even though ACS participants thought of unfastened black colonization in Africa a benevolent company, so much black leaders rejected the ACS, fearing that the association sought compelled elimination. As Ousmane ok. Power-Greene's tale indicates, those African American anticolonizationists didn't think Liberia could ever be a real "black American homeland."
In this examine of anticolonization agitation, Power-Greene attracts on newspapers, assembly mins, and letters to discover the concerted attempt at the a part of 19th century black activists, group leaders, and spokespersons to problem the yank Colonization Society's try to make colonization of loose blacks federal coverage. The ACS insisted the plan embodied empowerment. the U.S., they argued, might by no means settle for loose blacks as electorate, and the single method to the prestige of loose blacks used to be to create an self sustaining kingdom that will essentially reject racism at its center. however the activists and reformers at the contrary facet believed that the colonization circulation used to be itself deeply racist and in reality one of many maximum hindrances for African american citizens to achieve citizenship within the United States.
Power-Greene synthesizes debates approximately colonization and emigration, situating this complicated and enduring factor into an ever broader dialog approximately state construction and id formation within the Atlantic international.
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Extra resources for Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle Against the Colonization Movement
26 Even while members of the black elite pushed for building a black settlement in opposition to slavery and racism, most blacks only supported these plans when they were distinguished from those of the ACS and Liberia. For this reason, class status did not weigh heavily on whether or not a person rejected the ACS and Liberia. One particular case stands as a clear example of this reality. When free blacks, having heard of the formation of the American Colonization Society, met in Philadelphia in 1817 to formulate a response, their impressions were gathered in the form of a series of resolutions.
Even if only for this reason, they wanted to stay in the United States rather than leave for Liberia. 12 / introduction Although Frederick Douglass and other anticolonizationists continually agitated about the idea that the colonization movement sought to banish free blacks to Liberia, they were not entirely correct. In fact, some ACS members rejected compulsory colonization from the outset. These northern “emancipationists” often clashed with other members of the ACS, particularly those from the South who owned slaves.
Although these recommendations reflected white American Convention members’ generally positive attitude about black potential, they were also worded in a way that illustrates the paternalistic attitude of white reformers of the time. For example, the committee believed neither African colonization nor resettlement in Haiti had any chance of succeeding on the grounds that African Americans were unprepared for self-rule. Of course, James Forten and Prince Saunders must have balked at such conclusions, even if they were well intended.
Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle Against the Colonization Movement by Ousmane Power-Greene